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DataBank

Metadata Glossary

Showing results from 1 to 50 of 109
5-bank asset concentration
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.06
DescriptionAssets of five largest banks as a share of total commercial banking assets. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax, discontinued operations and other assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is (sum(data2025) for the five largest banks in Bankscope) / (sum(data2025) for all banks) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis.
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ATMs per 100,000 adults
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.25
DescriptionFor each country calculated as: 100,000*Number of ATMs/adult population in the reporting country.
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Bank accounts per 1,000 adults
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.01
DescriptionFor each country calculated as: 1,000*reported number of depositors/adult population in the reporting country.
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Bank branches per 100,000 adults
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.02
DescriptionFor each country calculated as: 100,000*reported number of commercial bank branches/adult population in the reporting country.
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Bank capital to total assets (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.SI.03
DescriptionRatio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Reported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
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Bank concentration (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.01
DescriptionAssets of three largest commercial banks as a share of total commercial banking assets. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is (sum(data2025) for the three largest banks in Bankscope) / (sum(data2025) for all banks) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis.
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Bank cost to income ratio (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.07
DescriptionOperating expenses of a bank as a share of sum of net-interest revenue and other operating income. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2090 / (data2080 + data2085) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. All Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank credit to bank deposits (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.SI.04
DescriptionRaw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Private credit by deposit money banks (IFS line 22d and FOSAOP); bank deposits (IFS lines 24, 25, FOST and FOSD).
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Bank deposits to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.02
DescriptionDemand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Bank deposits (IFS lines 24, 25, FOST and FOSD); GDP in local currency (IFS line NGDP); end-of period CPI (IFS line PCPI); and average annual CPI is calculated using the monthly CPI values (IFS line PCPI).
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Bank lending-deposit spread
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.02
DescriptionRaw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Difference between lending rate and deposit rate. Lending rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to the private sector and deposit interest rate is the rate offered by commercial banks on three-month deposits. IFS line 60P - line 60L.
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Bank net interest margin (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.01
DescriptionAccounting value of bank's net interest revenue as a share of its average interest-bearing (total earning) assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2080[t] / ((data2010[t] + data2010[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank noninterest income to total income (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.03
DescriptionBank’s income that has been generated by noninterest related activities as a percentage of total income (net-interest income plus noninterest income). Noninterest related income includes net gains on trading and derivatives, net gains on other securities, net fees and commissions and other operating income. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2085 / (data2080 + data2085) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Number is only calculated when net-interest income is not negative. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank nonperforming loans to gross loans (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.SI.02
DescriptionReported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
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Bank overhead costs to total assets (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.04
DescriptionOperating expenses of a bank as a share of the value of all assets held. Total assets include total earning assets, cash and due from banks, foreclosed real estate, fixed assets, goodwill, other intangibles, current tax assets, deferred tax assets, discontinued operations and other assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2090[t] / ((data2025[t] + data2025[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.SI.05
DescriptionReported by IMF staff. Note that due to differences in national accounting, taxation, and supervisory regimes, these data are not strictly comparable across countries.
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Bank return on assets (%, after tax)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.05
DescriptionCommercial banks’ after-tax net income to yearly averaged total assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2115[t] / ((data2025[t] + data2025[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank return on assets (%, before tax)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.09
DescriptionCommercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged total assets. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data10270[t] / ((data2025[t] + data2025[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank return on equity (%, after tax)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.06
DescriptionCommercial banks’ after-tax net income to yearly averaged equity. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data2115[t] / ((data2055[t] + data2055[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank return on equity (%, before tax)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.10
DescriptionCommercial banks’ pre-tax income to yearly averaged equity. Raw data are from Bankscope and Orbis. The formula applied to Bankscope is data10270[t] / ((data2055[t] + data2055[t-1])/2) and a comparable approach is applied to Orbis. Numerator and denominator are first aggregated on the country level before division. Note that banks used in the calculation might differ between indicators. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Bank Z-score
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.SI.01
DescriptionIt captures the probability of default of a country's banking system. Z-score compares the buffer of a country's banking system (capitalization and returns) with the volatility of those returns. It is estimated as (ROA+(equity/assets))/sd(ROA); sd(ROA) is the standard deviation of ROA, calculated for country-years with no less than 5 bank-level observations. ROA, equity, and assets are country-level aggregate figures. Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank unconsolidated data from Bankscope and Orbis. The result is not reported if a country-year has less than 3 bank-level observations.
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Banking crisis dummy (1=banking crisis, 0=none)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.19
DescriptionA banking crisis is defined as systemic if two conditions are met: a. Significant signs of financial distress in the banking system (as indicated bysignificant bank runs, losses in the banking system, and/or bank liquidations), b. Significant banking policy intervention measures in response to significant losses in the banking system. The first year that both criteria are met is considered as the year when the crisis start becoming systemic. The end of a crisis is defined the year before both real GDP growth and real credit growth are positive for at least two consecutive years.
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Boone indicator
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.05
DescriptionA measure of degree of competition, calculated as the elasticity of profits to marginal costs. To obtain the elasticity, the log of profits (measured by return on assets) is regressed on the log of marginal costs. The estimated coefficient (computed from the first derivative of a trans-log cost function) is the elasticity. The rationale behind the indicator is that higher profits are achieved by more-efficient banks. Hence, the more negative the Boone indicator, the higher the degree of competition is because the effect of reallocation is stronger. Estimations of the Boone indicator in this database follow the methodology used by Schaeck and Cihák (2010) with a modification to use marginal costs instead of average costs. Regional estimates of the Boone indicator pool the bank data by regions (for more information, see Hay and Liu 1997; Boone 2001; Boone, Griffith, and Harrison 2005). Calculated from underlying bank-by-bank data from Bankscope.
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Borrowed any money in the past year (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.14
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents who borrowed any money in the past 12 months from any of the following sources: a formal financial institution, a store by using installment credit, family or friends, employer, or another private lender (% age 15+). (Note that getting a loan does not necessarily require having an account.) The variables correspond to Global Findex variable fin23_t_d.
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Borrowed from a financial institution (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.07
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents who report borrowing any money from a bank, credit union, microfinance institution, or another financial institution such as a cooperative in the past 12 months (% age 15+). The values correspond to Global Findex variable fin22a_t_a.
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Borrowed from a store by buying on credit (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.17
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents who borrowed any money in the past 12 months from a store by using installment credit or buying on credit (% age 15+). The variables correspond to Global Findex variable fin21b_t_14_a.
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Borrowed from family or friends (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.18
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents who report borrowing any money from family or friends in the past 12 months (% age 15+). The variables correspond to Global Findex variable fin22b_t_a.
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Borrowed to start, operate, or expand a farm or business (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.08
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents who report using their accounts at a formal financial institution for farming/business purposes only or for both farming/business purposes and personal transactions (% age 15+). The values correspond to Global Findex variable fin21_t_a.
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Central bank assets to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DI.06
DescriptionClaims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by the Central Bank as a share of GDP. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Central Bank claims (IFS lines 12, a-d, FASAG, FASAOS, FASAON and FASAOP); GDP in local currency (IFS line NGDP).
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Consolidated foreign claims of BIS reporting banks to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.14
DescriptionThe ratio of consolidated foreign claims to GDP of the banks that are reporting to BIS. Foreign claims are defined as the sum of cross-border claims plus foreign offices’ local claims in all currencies. In the consolidated banking statistics claims that are granted or extended to nonresidents are referred to as cross-border claims. In the context of the consolidated banking statistics, local claims refer to claims of domestic banks’ foreign affiliates (branches/subsidiaries) on the residents of the host country (i.e. country of residence of affiliates). The calculation is based on BIS CBS Table B3: cross-border claims + local claims. End-of-year data (i.e. December data) are considered for banks claims. GDP is from World Development Indicators.
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Corporate bond average maturity (years)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DM.15
DescriptionDuration of bonds weighted by deal volume. Average maturities are constructed in two steps: i) the maturity of each tranche is weighted by the value of the tranche to estimate the deal level weighted-average maturity, ii) deal-level weighted average maturities are weighted again by the total value of the bond to aggregate to the country-year level.
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Corporate bond issuance volume to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DM.13
DescriptionTotal volume of newly issued corporate bonds by private entities in industries other than finance, holding companies and insurance, divided by GDP in current USD. GDP is from World Development Indicators.
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Credit card ownership (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.20
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents with a credit card (% age 15+). The variables correspond to Global Findex variable fin7_t_a.
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Credit to government and state owned enterprises to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.EI.08
DescriptionRaw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. (IFS line 22a + line 22b + line 22c) / GDP. IFS line FOSAG, FOSAOG and FOSAON are used respectively for line 22a, 22b and 22c when unavailable. Local currency GDP is from IFS (line NGDP).
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Debit card ownership (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.21
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents with a debit card (% age 15+). The variables correspond to Global Findex variable fin2_t_a.
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Debt securities by offshore investors (amounts outstanding) to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.09
DescriptionRatio of outstanding offshore debt securities to GDP. Offshore debt securities from BIS DDS Table C3 (amount outstanding): International debt securities - all issuers.
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Debt securities by offshore investors (net issuances) to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.08
DescriptionRatio of net offshore debt securities issuances to GDP. Offshore debt securities issuances data from BIS DSS Table C3 (net Issues): International debt securities - all issuers.
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Deposit money bank assets to deposit money bank assets and central bank assets (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DI.04
DescriptionRaw data are from the electronic version of the IMF's International Financial Statistics (IFS lines 12 and 22, a-d, FASAG, FASAOS, FASAON, FASAOP, FOSAG, FOSAOG, FOSAON and FOSAOP).
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Deposit money banks' assets to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DI.02
DescriptionClaims on domestic real nonfinancial sector by deposit money banks as a share of GDP. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Deposit money bank assets (IFS lines 22, a-d, FOSAG, FOSAOG, FOSAON and FOSAOP); GDP in local currency (IFS line NGDP).
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Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DI.14
DescriptionDomestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises.
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External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis all sectors (% of domestic bank deposits)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.12
DescriptionData is from BIS LBS Table A6.1: External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis all sectors, on the basis of residence. Bank deposits from IFS (IFS lines 24, 25, FOST and FOSD). End of year data (i.e. December data) are used.
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External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis the banking sector (% of domestic bank deposits)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.10
DescriptionData is from BIS LBS Table A6.1: External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis the banking sector, on the basis of residence. Bank deposits from IFS (IFS lines 24, 25, FOST and FOSD). End of year data (i.e. December data) are used.
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External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis the nonbanking sectors (% of domestic bank deposits)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.OI.11
DescriptionData is from BIS LBS Table A6.1: External loans and deposits of reporting banks vis-à-vis nonbanking sectors, on the basis of residence. Bank deposits from IFS (IFS lines 24, 25, FOST and FOSD). End of year data (i.e. December data) are used.
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Financial institution account (% age 15+)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.05
DescriptionThe percentage of respondents with an account (self or together with someone else) at a bank, credit union, another financial institution (e.g., cooperative, microfinance institution), or the post office (if applicable) including respondents who reported having a debit card (% age 15+). The values correspond to Global Findex variable fin1_t_a.
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Financial system deposits to GDP (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.DI.08
DescriptionDemand, time and saving deposits in deposit money banks and other financial institutions as a share of GDP. Raw data are from the electronic version of the IMF’s International Financial Statistics. Financial system deposits (IFS lines 24, 25, 44, 45, FOST and FOSD); GDP in local currency (IFS line NGDP).
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Firms identifying access to finance as a major constraint (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.36
DescriptionPercentage of firms identifying access/cost of finance as a "major" or "very severe" obstacle.
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Firms not needing a loan (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.32
DescriptionPercent of firms that did not apply for a loan in the last fiscal year because they did not need a loan. The denominator is the sum of all firms who applied and did not apply for a loan. The numerator is the number of firms who did not apply for a loan and also stated that they did not need a loan.
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Firms using banks to finance investments (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.28
DescriptionPercentage of firms using banks to finance purchases of fixed assets.
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Firms using banks to finance working capital (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.29
DescriptionPercentage of firms using bank loans to finance working capital.
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Firms whose recent loan application was rejected (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.33
DescriptionPercent of firms whose most recent loan application was rejected by a formal financial institution.
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Firms with a bank loan or line of credit (%)
DimensionSeries
Database NameGlobal Financial Development
CodeSource
GFDD.AI.03
DescriptionPercentage of firms in the formal sector with a line of credit or a loan from a formal financial institution, such as a bank, credit union, microfinance institution, or cooperative.
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